Carbohydrates

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CARBOHYDRATE

Carbohydrates

CARBOHYDRATES

Aldehyde or ketone derivatives of polyhydric alcohols

General structural formula Cn(H2O)n

Classification

Based on the number of sugar units

 Monosaccharides:

Contain only one sugar unit

Subclassified into:

Based on functional group: Aldoses <> Ketoses

Based on number of carbon atom: Trioses (3C), Tetroses (4C), Pentoses (5C), Hexoses (6C), Heptoses (7C) etc

MONOSACCHARIDES Aldoses Ketoses
Triose Glyceraldehyde Dihydroxyacetone
Tetrose Erythrose Erythrulose
Pentose Ribose,Xylose,Arabinose Ribulose,Xylulose
Hexoses Glucose,Galactose,Mannose Fructose
Heptose Glucoheptose Sedoheptulose

 

Disaccharides

Composed of 2 monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic linkage

Eg:   Lactose (Galactose+Glucose)

Sucrose (Glucose + Fructose)

Maltose (Glucose+Glucose)

 Oligosaccharides

Composed of 3-10 monosaccharides

Eg: Maltotriose (3 molecules of glucose)

Polysaccharides

Composed of more than 10 monosaccharides

Subclassified into

Homoglycan : Composed of only one type of monosaccharide

Eg: Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose (composed of glucose)

Inulin (Composed of fructose)

Heteroglycan: more than one type of monosaccharides

Eg: Mucopolysaccharides